In 2005, Lumina Foundation for Education supported five colleges in the Northwest – Evergreen State College (TESC), Grays Harbor College (GHC), Northwest Indian College (NWIC), Salish Kootenai College (SKC), and Bainbridge Graduate Institute – to work together to develop Native teaching cases as a culturally relevant and engaging resource for Native students.
Using cases simply means teaching stories with a significant educational message. Cases have been used for many years at Harvard and other institutions. We thought they would have high congruence with Native story-telling traditions and be a terrific resource for Native students.
Previous research suggested that cases can be effective in promoting critical thinking, understanding concepts more deeply, viewing issues from multiple perspectives, and making connections across content areas. They also strengthen communication skills and increase student participation, active learning, and peer relationships. (Herreid, C. 2007. “Assessment and Evaluation of the Case Study Process” in Start With A Story: The Case Teaching Method of Teaching College Science.)
We had several goals: to promote student engagement and active learning, to develop skills in problem solving and working in teams, to create a strong community of learners in the Grays Harbor College and Evergreen State College reservation-based program, to encourage sharing of issues and solutions across tribes, and to fill a void in the literature on contemporary issues in Indian Country, especially the Pacific Northwest.
Nearly two dozen interdisciplinary cases were produced. With limited curricular space and case development resources, it was important to focus on significant issues. To identify critical issues, we convened a Native Advisory Board. The members used a delphi-type brainstorming process to identify topical areas for case development. Students were also invited to suggest topics.
Faculty development was an important part of our initiative since case teaching is new to many instructors. Each case has teaching notes. In addition, faculty learned how to use cases through a summer institute on teaching and writing cases and shorter workshops held at the two tribal colleges involved in the project, NWIC and SKC. In the workshops faculty did cases as if they were students and learned about different types of cases and instructional approaches. Ninety percent of the participants had not previously used cases, but a year after the institute nearly all indicated they were using cases in their classes.
Integrating Cases into the Curriculum
While all the partner colleges utilized cases, Grays Harbor College and Evergreen State College were the sites for large-scale integration of cases into the curriculum. Together these two colleges offer a reservation-based program at eight Indian reservations in Washington: Quinault, Nisqually, Lower Elwha S’Klallam/Makah, Port Gamble, Tulalip, Muckleshoot, Shoalwater Bay, and Squaxin Island.
Grays Harbor offers an associate of arts degree through a hybrid distance learning program, and Evergreen provides the upper division leading to a bachelor’s degree. Some courses are cross-registered, providing opportunities for the lower and upper division students to collaborate. Cross-college collaboration is intended to provide role modeling and a community of aspiration to inspire the Grays Harbor students to complete their bachelor’s degrees.
The cases were implemented in online courses (American Government and Biology) and in face-to-face classes. In the online classes they were part of the online discussion board and the reading that students responded to through essays.
The cases were the centerpiece of a new, year-long, face-to-face course called “Battlegrounds in Indian Country.” In this course, students gathered for a three-hour class once a month to do a case on an important issue in Indian Country.
Topics included housing, infusing Native history into the K-12 curriculum, Native student achievement in K-12 education, natural resource management, diabetes, global warming, substance abuse, Makah whaling, oxygen depletion in Hood Canal and tribal fishing practices, Indian enrollment and identity, and casino business practices and social responsibility, among others. Sovereignty and the exercise of self-governance was an underlying theme throughout the cases.
Cases can be taught in many different ways. Our approach emphasized active learning and working in teams — a critical skill in the modern world. A large group of 60 students was divided into groups of 6-8 students to discuss a case. The discussion itself used different forms: responding to set questions or role playing the various characters in a case. In one class involving reforestation, students worked with maps to make recommendations on a timber sale. In another they role played the different parties in a land dispute. Usually classes ended with group reports to the whole, posters summarizing conclusions, and an all-group debrief.
Student response to cases has been very positive. What started as a one-quarter experiment has now become a mainstay of the program. Ongoing evaluation processes have refined the approach through student surveys at the end of each session and end-of-quarter surveys. As indicated in Table 1, students see many advantages to this approach.
Student engagement is often a problem in education, and this experience shows that cases clearly engaged the students. Relevance is a key aspect of student engagement. The issues that the Native Advisory Board identified were the right issues in these communities. The cases were live and lively: local but not too local. They were rich in complicated issues that didn’t lend themselves to easy answers. Working in groups around clearly defined tasks provided opportunities for learning from one another.
Students repeatedly pointed to learning from their peers as a significant strength of learning through cases. It was pleasantly surprising to find that many students were inspired to do additional reading on the topics though this was not even suggested by the instructors. The qualitative student comments about learning through cases were especially revealing.
Student Views about the Case Method
Diverse small groups promote discussion and learning from one another. As one student put it, “the class benefited by encouraging students to work with co-students with similar yet different work experience. This really helped me during various discussions.”
Another student said, “Breaking up a large group is a real advantage. This way each person is allowed to share their views and opinions, and the discussion can go into more detail.”
This student said that during the last case study, “I happened to sit with an experienced young fisherman and an older fisherman who had just started fishing. The young fisherman knew the scientific data inside and out. He took the time to explain the scientific facts of the case to us in a way we could more easily understand. During this process, I observed the older fisherman have one of those ‘aha moments.’ I really enjoyed the exchange that took place.”
Cases can effectively celebrate Indian leaders. The students especially enjoyed having tribal leaders join the case sessions. Micah McCarty, tribal chairman, presented the case on Makah whaling. James Jaime, executive director of the Quileute Tribe, co-led the session on the land dispute between his tribe and the Olympic National Park with student-author Larry Ralston. Some of the cases were written by or about Native leaders, such as the state director of Indian Education, Denny Hurtado and State Representative John McCoy. Without exception, these leaders encouraged the students to step up to their roles as future leaders in Indian Country.
The cases are relevant to current issues. Since most of the students work in their communities, the discussions often generated information that could be acted upon. As one student remarked, “Sometimes our case studies provide information that I can immediately use in my job with my tribe. During one case, we discussed some Indian Child Welfare issues. I brought that information back to people at my tribe, and we organized a visit to another tribe with hopes of improving our own program. That never would have happened had I not attended that class.”
A faculty member said “the Native cases have “lit a fire” among the faculty, and the students really get into them. Some take central issues back to the tribal leaders who use them to build support and understanding of contemporary problems.”
Another noted that “the cases shed light on very important topics to all of the students as they apply to all of our tribes in one way or another.”
The project’s external evaluator interviewed the students and corroborated this observation, noting that the “cases were seen as especially helpful in showing students that many tribes face similar issues. They don’t always see this bigger picture from their own tribal perspective.”
Cases can cultivate the ability to engage productively in difficult dialogues. One student observed that “…another case study discussed tribal enrollment issues. I was reluctant to attend because I know people have very strong emotional opinions about this topic. I feared some would be deeply offended before the session ended. I was pleasantly surprised that everyone’s opinion was allowed to be expressed, and we all listened with great respect. This turned out to be my favorite case study thus far.”
Empowerment and finding voice was a common theme among students. One woman said, “I was reluctant to go to Battlegrounds classes at first because I never wanted to be involved in intergovernmental issues. I’ve always been quiet and standoffish, more of a follower. But after going to these classes a few times I realized that everyone gets to be involved and express their own views, and it is accepted.
“Some of the issues in the case studies really got my blood pressure boiling, and I realized that we don’t just have to sit back and take it when something is wrong. I’ve always felt like a nobody and didn’t think that anything I had to say would matter. But after hearing about the things that have been going on and seeing how people can stand up for their rights, I realized that this class has been really good for me…the encouragement from everyone has been great.”
Another student said, “I’m on fire about Battlegrounds. This is the bread and butter of what we are here for. They hit a heart string with me. The approach I take is to empower the work Natives are doing. I love to see a discussion turn from ‘here they are picking on us Natives again’ to ‘we can take charge.’ As we become empowered, we will end up feeling like an asset to our communities. This builds my self-esteem.”
This project has found cases to be a very successful teaching innovation, and it will be continued. The Native Cases Initiative recently received a 3 year $490,000 award from the National Science Foundation to expand its work.
In addition to conveying important information, cases deepen student understanding and develop skills in problem solving, working in teams, and dealing with issues that do not have easy answers. Case development has also fostered good communication between tribal leaders and faculty and has provided an avenue to develop curriculum addressing important community issues.
Most importantly, cases empower students. At the conclusion of one of our sessions, one student remarked that he now “got it.” “Your message, which we hear over and over again in these cases, is that we need to become the leaders of our communities. We need to step up and work for positive change. This is what education should be all about!”
The Native Cases referred to in this article are available at the following website: www.evergreen.edu/tribal/cases.
Barbara Leigh Smith is faculty and special assistant to the Evergreen State College Reservation-Based Program and co-director of the Native Cases Initiative..