24-4 Summer 2013 “Language Revitalization” Resource Guide

Volume 24, No. 4 - Summer 2013
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While reporting one of the stories in the current issue of Tribal College Journal, I had the opportunity to speak with Chief Dull Knife College president Richard Littlebear. Littlebear is a leader in language revitalization, not only on the Northern Cheyenne reservation, but across North America.

I kept recalling our conversation. Many of the linguists who study Native languages, he said, talk about how the languages are dying. “I think that puts a lot of doom and gloom on our efforts,” he said. “Linguists should say, ‘We’re helping to save these languages.’” The irony, he pointed out, is that many people have directed their energy and efforts toward dissecting languages, rather than saving them.

And while much of the literature on language revitalization and restoration does focus on loss, that is starting to change. More Native communities and tribal colleges and universities (TCUs) are implementing language programs and creating language schools and classes for young people.

The resources below offer just a taste of the available literature concerning language revitalization and restoration. But perhaps the best place to start is by contacting your local tribal college or university and finding out what programs and ideas people there are offering. For a complete list of TCUs, see the Directory at the end of this issue or visit: www.pixelright2.com/new-tcj/tribal-colleges.

Articles and Book Chapters

Ambler, M. (Ed.). (2000). Native Languages [special issue]. Tribal College Journal, 11(3).

Anonby, S. (1999). Reversing language shift: Can Kwak’wala be revived? In J. Reyhner, G. Cantoni, R. N. St. Clair, & E. P. Yazzie (Eds.), Revitalizing Indigenous languages (pp. 33-52). Flagstaff, AZ: Northern Arizona University.

Begay, S., Dick, G., Estell, D., Estell, J., McCarty, T. L., & Seils, A. (1995). Change from the inside out: A story of transformation in a Navajo community school. Bilingual Research Journal, 19(1), 121-139.

Benham, M., & Mann, H. (2003). Culture and language matters: Defining, implementing, and evaluating. In M. Benham and W. Stein (Eds.), The Renaissance of American Indian higher education: Capturing the dream (pp. 167-192). London: Routledge.

Berlin, L. (2000). The benefits of second language acquisition and teaching for Indigenous language educators. Journal of American Indian Education, 39(3), 19-35.

Cantoni, G. (1997). Keeping minority languages alive: The school’s responsibility. In J. Reyhner (Ed.), Teaching Indigenous Languages (pp. 1-9). Flagstaff, AZ: Northern Arizona University.

Cantoni, G. (1999). Using TPR—storytelling to develop fluency and literacy in Native American languages. In J. Reyhner, G. Cantoni, R. N. St. Clair, & E. P. Yazzie (Eds.), Revitalizing Indigenous languages (pp. 53-58). Flagstaff, AZ: Northern Arizona University.

Crawford, J. (1996). Seven hypotheses on language loss, causes, and cures. In J. Reyhner, G. Cantoni, R. N. St. Clair, & E. P. Yazzie (Eds.), Revitalizing Indigenous languages (pp. 33-52). Flagstaff, AZ: Northern Arizona University.

Dauenhauer, N., & Dauenhauer, R. (1998). Technical, emotional, and ideological issues in reversing language shift: Examples from Southeast Alaska. In L. Grenoble & L. Whaley (Eds.), Endangered languages: Current issues and future prospects (pp. 57-98). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

Eisenlohr, P. (2004). Language revitalization and new technologies: Cultures of electronic mediation and the refiguring of communities. Annual Review of Anthropology, 33, 21-45.

Fishman, J. A. (1996). Maintaining languages: What works and what doesn’t. In G. Cantoni (Ed.), Stabilizing Indigenous languages (pp. 186-198). Flagstaff, AZ: Northern Arizona University Center for Excellence in Education.

Gipp, G. (2003). Foreward. In M. Benham & W. Stein (Ed.), The Renaissance of American Indian higher education: Capturing the dream (pp. xiii-xvi). London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Hinton, L. (2003). Language revitalization. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 23, 44-57.

Holm, A., & Hohn, W. (1995). Navajo language education: Retrospect and prospects. Bilingual Research Journal, 19(1), 141-167.

Howard, E. R., & Loeb, M. I. (1998). In their own words: Two-way immersion teachers talk about their professional experiences. ERIC Digest, EDO-FL-98014.

Howard, E. R., & Sugarman, J. (2001). Two-way immersion programs: Features and statistics. ERIC Digest, EDO-FL-01-01.

Keami, S. (2000). Advocating for a stimulating and language-based education. In M. Benham & W. Stein (Eds), Indigenous educational models for contemporary practice: In our mother’s voice (pp. 51-59). London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Kipp, D. (2000). Commitment to language-based education. In M. Benham & W. Stein (Eds.), Indigenous educational models for contemporary practice: In our mother’s voice (pp. 62-69). London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Krauss, M. (1996). Status of Native American language endangerment. In G. Cantoni (Ed.), Stabilizing Indigenous languages (pp. 16-21). Flagstaff, AZ: Northern Arizona University Center for Excellence in Education.

Littlebear, R. (1992). American Indian bilingual education: TPR works! National Association for Bilingual Education News 15(6), 13.

Littlebear, R. (1995). Language loss and what we must do about it. Journal of Navajo Education, 13(1), 16-25.

Littlebear, R. (1997). Montana adopts landmark language certification process. Tribal College Journal, 9(2), 26-29.

Littlebear, R. (1999). Some rare and radical ideas for keeping Indigenous languages alive. In J. Reyhner, G. Cantoni, R. N. St. Clair, and E. P. Yazzie (Eds.), Revitalizing Indigenous languages (pp. 1-5). Flagstaff, AZ: Northern Arizona University.

Littlebear, R. (2003). Chief Dull Knife community is strengthening the Northern Cheyenne language and culture. Journal of American Indian Education, 42(1), 75-84.

Littlebear, R. (2004). One man, two languages: Confessions of a freedom-loving bilingual. Tribal College Journal, 15(3), 10-12.

Littlebear, R., & Martinez, A. (1996). A model for promoting Native American language preservation and teaching. In G. Cantoni (Ed.), Stabilizing Indigenous languages (pp. 187-192). Flagstaff, AZ: Northern Arizona University.

McCarty, T. L. (1993). Language, literacy and the image of the child in American Indian classrooms. Language Arts, 70, 182-192.

McCarty, T. L. (1998). Schooling, resistance, and American Indian languages. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 132, 27-41.

McCarty, T. L. (2003). Revitalizing Indigenous languages in homogenizing times. Comparative Education, 39(2), 147-163.

McCarty, T. L., Romero, M. E., & Zepeda, O. (2006). Reclaiming the gift: Indigenous youth counter-narratives on Native language loss and revitalization. American Indian Quarterly, 30(1), 28-48.

McCarty, T. L, Romero-Little, M. E., & Zepeda, O. (2008). Native American youth discourses on language shift and retention: Ideological cross-currents and their implications for language planning. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 9(5).

McCarty, T. L., Watahomigie, L. J., Yamamoto, A. Y., & Zepeda, O. (1997). Indigenous educators as change agents: the American Indian Language Development Institute. In J. Reyhner (Ed.), Teaching Indigenous languages (pp. 85-104). Flagstaff, AZ: Northern Arizona University Center for Excellence in Education.

Mistaken Chief, D., Sr. (1993). Using Blackfoot language to rediscover who we are. Tribal College Journal, 11(3), 26-28.

Morgan, M. J. (2008). Redefining the Ojibwe classroom: Indigenous language programs within large research universities. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 36(1), 96-103.

Pease-Pretty On Top, J. (2002). Bringing Thunder. Tribal College Journal, 14(1), 10-13.

Real Bird, L. (2000). Empowering and redefining the languages. Ash-ammaa-ehkuua: Newsletter of the Learning Lodge Institute, 1(1).

Real Bird, L. (2000). Formalization of Native languages and cultures through teaching and learning. Ash-ammaa-ehkuua: Newsletter of the Learning Lodge Institute, 1(1).

Reyhner, J., Lee, H., & Gabbard, D. (1993). A specialized knowledge base for teaching American Indian and Alaska Native students. Tribal College Journal, 4(4), 26-32.

Reyhner, J., & Tennant, E. (1995). Maintaining and renewing Native languages. The Bilingual Research Journal, 19(2), 279-304.

Sims, C. P. (2003). Tribal languages and the challenges of revitalization. Anthropology & Education, 36(1), 104-106.

Sugarman, J., & Howard, L. (2001). Two-way immersion shows promising results: Findings from a new study. ERIC Digest. Washington, DC: ERIC/CLL Language Link, ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics.

Tarone, E. (2000). Getting serious about language play: Language play, interlanguage variation and second-language acquisition. In B. Swierzbin, F. Morris, M. E. Anderson, C. A. Klee, and E. Tarone (Eds.), Social and cognitive factors in second language acquisition: Selected proceedings of the 1999 second language research forum (pp. 31-54). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.

Warschaeuer, M., Donaghy, K., & Kuamoyo, H. (1997). Leoki: A powerful voice of the Hawaiian language revitalization. Computer Assisted Learning Language, 10(4), 349-362.

Wetzel, C. (2006). Neshnabemwen Renaissance: Local and national Potawatomi language revitalization efforts. American Indian Quarterly, 30(1&2), 61-86.

White, F. H. (2006). Rethinking Native American language revitalization. American Indian Quarterly, 20(1&2), 91-109.

Zepeda, O. (1990). American Indian language policy. In K. Adams & D. Brink (Eds.), Perspectives on official English: The campaign for English as the official language of the USA (pp. 395-407). Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

Books

Asher, J. J. (2000). Learning another language through actions (6th ed.). Los Gatos, CA: Sky Oaks Productions.

Benham, M. K. P. A., & Cooper, J. E. (2000). Indigenous education models for contemporary practice: In our mother’s voice. London: Routledge.

Benham, M. K. P. A., & Stein, W. J. (Eds.). (2003). The Renaissance of American Indian higher education. London: Routledge.

Burnaby, B., & Reyhner, J. (Eds.). (2002). Indigenous languages across the community. Flagstaff, AZ: Northern Arizona University Center for Excellence in Education.

Cantoni, G. (Ed.) (2007). Stabilizing Indigenous languages. Flagstaff, AZ: Northern Arizona University Center for Excellence in Education.

Cleary, L. M., & Peacock, T. D. (1998). Collected wisdom: American Indian education. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Cloud, N., Genesee, F., & Hamayan, E. V. (2000). Dual language instruction: A handbook for enriched education. Boston: Heinle.

Crawford, J. (1994). Endangered Native American languages: What is to be done, and why? Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse on Bilingual Education.

Curtain, H. (2003). Languages and children –making the match: New languages for young learners, grades K–8 (3rd ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Pearson, Allyn & Bacon.

Curtain, H., & Dahlberg, C. A. (2004). Languages and children: Making the match. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.

Deloria, V., Jr., & Lytle, C. M. (1998). The Nations within: The past and future of American Indian sovereignty. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

Fishman, J. A. (l991). Reversing language shift. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Grenoble, L. A., & Whaley, L. J. (2006). Saving languages: An introduction to language revitalization. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Hinton, L. (1994). Flutes of fire: Essays on California Indian languages. Berkeley, CA: Heyday.

Hinton, L., & Hale, K. (Eds.). (2001). The green book of language revitalization in practice. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Hinton, L., Steele, N., & Vera, M. (2002). How to keep your language alive: A commonsense approach to one-on-one language learning. Berkeley, CA: Heyday Books.

Hornberger, N. H. (1997). Indigenous literacies in the Americas: Language planning from the bottom up. Berlin, Germany: Walter de Gruyter & Company.

Kipp, D. R. (2000). Encouragement, guidance, insights, and lessons learned for Native language activists developing their own tribal language programs. Browning, MT: Piegan Institute.

Krashen, S. D. (1988). The natural approach: Language acquisition in the classroom. London: Prentice Hall.

Omaggio-Hadley, A. (1993). Teaching language in context. Boston: Heinle.

Ray, B., & Seely, C. (1998). Fluency through TPR storytelling: Achieving real language acquisition in school. Berkeley, CA: Command Performance Language Institute.

Reyhner, J., Cantoni, G., St. Clair, R. N., & Yazzie, E. P. (Eds.). (1999). Revitalizing Indigenous languages. Flagstaff, AZ: Northern Arizona University.

Reyhner, J., Martin, J., Lockard, L., & Sakiestewa, G. W. (Eds.). (2000). Learn in beauty: Indigenous education for a new century. Flagstaff, AZ: Northern Arizona Press.

Reyhner, J., Trujillo, O., Carrasco, R. L., & Lockard, L. (Eds.). (2003). Nurturing Native languages. Flagstaff, AZ: Northern Arizona University.

St. Clair, R., & Leap, W. (Eds.). (1982). Language renewal among American Indian tribes: Issues, problems, and prospects. Arlington, VA: National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education.

Saville-Troike, M. (2006). Introducing second language acquisition. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Schieffelin, B., & Ochs, E. (1986). Language socialization across cultures. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

White, F. (2008). Ancestral language acquisition among Native Americans: A study of a Haida language class. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press.

Reports and Testimony

Alaska Native Educators. (2001). Guidelines for strengthening Indigenous languages. Anchorage, AK: Alaska Native Knowledge Network.

Demmert, W. (1994). Blueprints for Indian education: languages and cultures. Charleston, WV: ERIC Digest, ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools.

Hakuta, K. (2001). Testimony to the United States Commission on Civil Rights: The education of language minority students.

Heavyrunner, I. (2001). Family based education model: A report of the Native American Higher Education Initiative of the W.K. Kellogg Foundation. Battlecreek, MI: W. K. Kellogg Foundation.

Hinton, L., Langdon, M., Munson, L., Rouillard, J., Yamamoto, A., Watahomigie, L., & Zepeda, O. (1982). A manual for the development of American Indian and Alaska Native language workshops. Unpublished report prepared under the auspices of National Endowment for the Humanities grant #ES-0013-79-50.

Kipp, D. (2000). Encouragement, guidance, insights and lessons for Native language activists developing their own language programs. St. Paul, MN: Piegan Institute with the Grotto.

Krauss, M. E. (1980). Alaska Native languages: Past, present, and future. Fairbanks, AK: Alaska Native Language Center.

LaFortune, R. (2000). Native languages as world languages: A vision for assessing and sharing information about Native languages across grant-making sectors. St. Paul, MN: Grotto Foundation.

McCarty, T. L., & Zepeda, O. (1990). Building the capacity of Indian educators and schools: The American Indian Language Development Institute, an exemplary program for retaining and developing high quality teachers of Native American students. Unpublished testimony submitted to the U.S. Department of Education, Indian Nations at Risk Task Force.

McCarty, T. L., & Zepada, O. (2006). One voice, many voices – Recreating Indigenous language communities. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Language Development Institute. Retrieved April 29, 2013 from http://www.hamel.com.mx/Archivos-Publicaciones/2006c%20Indigenous%20literacy%20teaching%20in%20public%20primary%20schools%20-%20A%20case%20of%20bilingual%20maintenance%20education.pdf

Marcos, K. (2001). Why, how, and when should my child learn a second language. Rockville, MD: ERIC Educational Resources Center.

Ozoblt, I. (2009). Lessons in immersion instruction from the American Indian Language Development Institute (AILDI). Retrieved April 29, 2013, from http://aildi.arizona.edu/sites/default/files/aildi-30-year-book-19-ivan-ozbolt-lessons-in-immersion-instruction-from-aildi.pdf

Peacock, T. D., & Day, D. R. (1999). Teaching American Indian and Alaskan Native languages in schools: What has been learned. ERIC Digest. Charleston, WV: ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools. Retrieved April 29, 2013, from http://bern.library.nenu.edu.cn/upload/soft/0-article/+026/26109.pdf

Pease-Pretty On Top, J. (2003). Native American language immersion: Innovative Native education for children and families. Arlington, VA: American Indian Higher Education Consortium. Retrieved April 29, 2013, from http://www.aihec.org/resources/documents/NativeLangugageImmersion.pdf

Romero-Little, M. E., Ortiz, S. J., & McCarty, T. S. (Eds.). (2011). Indigenous language across the generations—Strengthening families and communities. Tempe, AZ: Arizona State University School of Social Transformation, The Center for Indian Education.

Dissertations and Theses

Falcon, L. (1999). Native language immersion schools: A paradigm for Native American education. Unpublished master’s thesis, Vermont College of Norwich University, Northfield, Vermont.

McCarty, T. L. (1984). Bilingual-bicultural education in a Navajo community. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Arizona State University, Tempe.


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